red oleanders wikipedia

[13][14][15][16] It typically occurs around stream beds in river valleys, where it can alternatively tolerate long seasons of drought and inundation from winter rains. [46][47] According to the American Cancer Society, the trials conducted so far have produced no evidence of benefit, while they did cause adverse side effects. CareGrows best in full sun to partial shade and likes moist, well-drained soil. White, pink or red five-lobed flowers grow in clusters year-round, peaking during the summer. Red Oleanders (Raktakarabi) is one of the more than sixty plays, dance dramas and dramatic sketches by Asia’s first Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore. Flowers: Oleander Tree, Nerium Oleander - Stock Image I1977134 at FeaturePics. Larvae of the common crow butterfly (Euploea core) and oleander hawk-moth (Daphnis nerii) also feed on oleanders, and they retain or modify toxins, making them unpalatable to potential predators such as birds, but not to other invertebrates such as spiders and wasps. [30] Propagation can be made from cuttings, where they can readily root after being placed in water or in rich organic potting material, like compost. Clemson University: Oleander Facts. However loutish the American-born sons of the family may be, there was never one who refused to give his muscle to the back-breaking task of getting those tubbed trees down into the cellar in the fall and up into the sunlight in the spring. Oleander grows to 2–6 m (6.6–19.7 ft) tall, with erect stems that splay outward as they mature; first-year stems have a glaucous bloom, while mature stems have a grayish bark. In Mediterranean climates oleanders can be expected to bloom from April through October, with the heaviest bloom usually occurring between May and June. [29][30] The culprit is a bacterium called Xylella fastidiosa, which is spread via insects (the glassy-winged sharpshooter primarily) which feed on the tissue of oleanders and spread the bacteria. Huxley, A.; Griffiths, M.; Levy, M. They may strive to avert the day, but they grapple with the tub at last. Noteworthy CharacteristicsAll parts are highly toxic if ingested. Oleander 'Hardy Red' Nerium oleander. But this doesn’t mean that they can survive cold winters without help. In his book Enquiries into Plants of circa 300 BC, Theophrastus described (among plants that affect the mind) a shrub he called onotheras, which modern editors render oleander; "the root of onotheras [oleander] administered in wine", he alleges, "makes the temper gentler and more cheerful". The toxicity of oleander renders it deer-resistant and its large size makes for a good windbreak – as such it is frequently planted as a hedge along property lines and in agricultural settings. [42], Poisoning and reactions to oleander plants are evident quickly, requiring immediate medical care in suspected or known poisonings of both humans and animals. [15] Further medical attention may be required depending on the severity of the poisoning and symptoms. [30] Several dwarf cultivars have also been developed, offering a more compact form and size for small spaces. School of Pharmacy. Family: Apocynaceae (a-pos-ih-NAY-see-ee) Genus: Nerium (NER-ee-um) Species: oleander (oh-lee-AN-der) Cultivar: Hardy Red: 2 vendors have this plant for sale. ‘Little Red’ is a dwarf selection of oleander, which is a large evergreen shrub. The effect on the central nervous system may show itself in symptoms such as drowsiness, tremors or shaking of the muscles, seizures, collapse, and even coma that can lead to death. Care of Oleanders in Winter. Most cultivars will grow to 8 to 12 feet tall and almost as wide. are less well-known in cultivation. Oleander winter hardiness can vary, depending on the cultivar. [48], Nerium oleander has a history of cultivation going back millennia, especially amongst the great ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean Basin. Red. Listovi su mu izduženi i kožasti, cvjetovi krupni s ružičastim, crvenim ili bijelim laticama. Oleander (Nerium oleander) is an evergreen flowering shrub with dark green leaves. Placing them in a space with central heating and poor air flow can make them susceptible to a variety of pests – aphids, mealybugs, oleander scale, whitefly and spider mites. The funnel-shaped flowers are produced at the ends of Red Oleander's branches, in showy clusters that electrify your landscape with their vivid red color. [28] The disease has since decimated hundreds of thousands of shrubs mainly in Southern California, but also on a smaller scale in Arizona, Nevada and Texas. Retrieved on 2009-07-27. Winter Hardy Oleander Shrubs. It is most commonly grown in its natural shrub form, but can be trained into a small tree with a single trunk. Heat and Frost Hardy. A 2014 article in the medical journal Perspectives in Biology and Medicine posited that oleander was the substance used to induce hallucinations in the Pythia, the female priestess of Apollo, also known as the Oracle of Delphi in Ancient Greece. It is most commonly grown in its natural shrub form, but can be trained into a small tree with a single trunk. I love Oleanders and their beautiful blossoms. They are often, but not always, sweet-scented. Free-flowering varieties like 'Petite Salmon' or 'Mont Blanc' require no period of rest and can flower continuously throughout the year if the weather remains warm. On the East Coast of the US, it grows as far north as Virginia Beach, Virginia, while in California and Texas miles of oleander shrubs are planted on median strips. If consumed, the protagonist will vomit and lose a large amount of health. Die-back may cease during winter dormancy, but the disease flares up in summer heat while the shrub is actively growing, which allows the bacteria to spread through the xylem of the plant. [Note 3] The fruit is a long narrow pair of follicles 5–23 cm (2.0–9.1 in) long, which splits open at maturity to release numerous downy seeds. Plants may suffer damage or die back in such marginal climates during severe winter cold but will rebound from the roots. This inhibits the circulation of water in the tissue of the plant, causing individual branches to die until the entire plant is consumed. The toxicity of oleander renders it deer-resistant and its large size makes for a good windbreak – as suc… Retrieved on 2009-07-27. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nerium&oldid=991926728, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Taxonbars using multiple manual Wikidata items, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "The Terrace at Méric (Oleanders)", an 1867 Impressionist painting by, "The Rehearsal of the Flute Player and the Wife of Diomedes in the Atrium of Prince Napoleon's Pompeian House in Paris" (1861) by, Oleanders were famously referenced by the band, Oleander was used as a poison to kill mice, on, In the late 6th century/early 7th century AD, Oleander is the official flower of the city of, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 15:38. Therefore, through the means of animal symbolism, Tagore effectively highlights the ways in which the groups in power capitalize on the powerless. [43], Drying of plant materials does not eliminate the toxins. [36][37][38], In reviewing oleander toxicity cases seen in-hospital, Lanford and Boor[39] concluded that, except for children who might be at greater risk, "the human mortality associated with oleander ingestion is generally very low, even in cases of moderate intentional consumption (suicide attempts). Most grow to 12 feet tall and 12 feet wide, and some shoot up to over 20 feet. Erwin, Van den Enden. [57] Some variants tell of this happening to Napoleon's or Alexander the Great's soldiers. It's so resilient that it stands up to heat, drought, pollution, and even salt. This attractive, rounded tree is a modified form of the standard Red Oleander shrub that bears light red flowers from spring through fall. Considered to be the standard by which all other Oleanders are compared for cold hardiness, Hardy Red is known to withstand all … In some protected areas mature plants may reach up to 20 feet tall. It belongs to (and gives its name to) the small tribe Nerieae of subfamily Apocynoideae of the dogbane family Apocynaceae. 79. The plant has a leaf like that of the almond, but smaller, and the flower is red like a rose. Read on for tips on oleander winter care. However, if an oleander is drought-stressed, the leaves begin turning yellow at the middle and then spread outward. The Red Oleander Tree (Nerium oleander) is a warm weather (yet cold tolerant), fast growing evergreen shrub sought for its beautiful array of red flowers and ability to form a uniquely decorative hedge.The oleander is a full to partial sun loving dwarf variety that matures to a height of 8-12 feet and 6-10 feet wide. Oleanders really are great hardy, evergreen and blooming shrubs for our climate...pretty too! [18] The best method for preventing further spread of the disease is to prune infected oleanders to the ground immediately after the infection is noticed. The Firestarter Red Flowering Oleander is a beautiful evergreen tree that is also very salt-water tolerant. [30] Unless they wish to harvest the seeds, many gardeners choose to prune away the seedpods that form on spent flower clusters, which are a drain on energy. Oleander… The dried or fresh branches should not be used for spearing food, for preparing a cooking fire, or as a food skewer. Spread 6 to 7ft. [50] Pliny confirmed that the Romans had no Latin word for the plant, but used the Greek terms instead. Nerium obesum) single flower, Adenium obesum var. Oleander (Nerium oleander) is a beautiful evergreen shrub that produces flowers in a wide range of colors. Chitrangada, Chandalika, and Shyama are other key plays that have dance-drama adaptations, which together are known as Rabindra Nritya Natya. Firestarter Red Flowering Oleanders will make a spectacular sight for your landscape from May until December. As such it can be difficult to identify at first because gardeners may mistake the symptoms for those of drought stress or nutrient deficiency.[31]. It is grown without protection in southern England and can reach great sizes in London and to a lesser extent in Paris[21] due to the urban heat island effect. (1992). Toxicity studies of animals administered oleander extract concluded that birds and rodents were observed to be relatively insensitive to oleander cardiac glycosides. [53] Both Pliny and Dioscorides stated that oleander was an effective antidote to venomous snake bites if mixed with rue and drunk. The leaves are in pairs or whorls of three, thick and leathery, dark-green, narrow lanceolate, 5–21 cm (2.0–8.3 in) long and 1–3.5 cm (0.39–1.38 in) broad, and with an entire margin filled with minute reticulate venation web typical of eudicots. Nerium oleander is either native or naturalized to a broad area spanning from Northwest Africa and Iberian peninsula eastward through the Mediterranean region, to the Arabian peninsula, southern Asia, and as far east as Yunnan in southern parts of China. It was also released in Hollywood as Red Oleanders Raktokarobi with English subtitles. 'Sister Agnes' … 1 more photos VIEW GALLERY. Carbonized fragments of oleander wood have been identified at the Villa Poppaea in Oplontis, likewise buried by the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. Oleanders bloom in both cool and warm shades of red. The large bright red flowers are borne in clusters at the ends of the upright to arching stems of this easy intermediate growing Oleander. The fruit is a long narrow pair of follicles, which splits open at maturity to release numerous downy seeds. [2] The genus name Nerium is the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek name for the plant nẽrion (νήριον), which is in turn derived from the Greek for water, nẽros (νηρός), because of the natural habitat of the oleander along rivers and streams. In another mention, of "wild bay" (Daphne agria), Theophrastus appears to intend the same shrub. 2004. Oleander leaf scorch. [6] ascribed to oleander's toxicity to humans. Virginia Commonwealth University. [15] Cardiac reactions consist of irregular heart rate, sometimes characterized by a racing heart at first that then slows to below normal further along in the reaction. [26] The actual flower referenced by Pliny was Azalea/Rhododendron, which is still used in Turkey to produce a hallucinogenic honey.[62]. View gallery. Its flowers are deep red and bloom all summer long. Barcelona Botanic Gardens: Plants of North Africa. Red Common Oleander Nerium Oleander The Standard Oleander is a fast growing evergreen shrub. “Algiers” (Nerium oleander “Algiers”) grows 8 feet tall and produces single, dark-red flowers. Many cultivars, like 'Hawaii' or 'Turner's Carnival', are multi-colored, with brilliant striped corollas. Nerium grows to 2–6 m (7–20 ft) tall. It is useful for manually causing a fail screen if a mission is glitched or broken. Eretz VeTeva, January–February 1995 (in Hebrew). Oleandar (zlolepina, lat. Red Oleanders, a powerful and moving play, is the story of Nandini, a girl who recognises no social barriers and taboos and who disregards them in her search for happiness. It typically grows in a large mound that is almost as wide as it is tall, but some of the taller varieties may be pruned into the form of a small tree.Oleander is available in a wide variety of cultivars that differ in both their mature height and their flower color. It is also hazardous for animals such as sheep, horses, cattle, and other grazing animals, with as little as 100 g being enough to kill an adult horse. Herbaria of oleander varieties are compiled and held at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. and at Moody Gardens in Galveston, Texas. Red Oleanders is one of many of Tagore’s works where he devotes himself to speaking up for alienated groups. For the underworld in Babylonian mythology, see, "Oleander" redirects here. The play is built around the theme of unscrupulous capitalism, environmental exploitation and the importance of … (eds.) [34] The solid whites, reds and a variety of pinks are the most common. 'Isle of Capri' grows to 7 feet tall with single light yellow flowers. Considered to be the standard by which all other Oleanders are compared for cold hardiness Hardy Red is known to withstand all that zones 8 and warmer can throw at it without batting an eye. For other uses, see, This article is about the species of plant. Pruning out affected parts can slow the progression of the disease but not eliminate it. [40] A spokesman for the Los Angeles County Coroner's office stated that it was the first instance of death connected to oleander in the county, and a toxicologist from the California Poison Control Center said it was the first instance of death he had seen recorded. Oleander is a vigorous grower in warm subtropical regions, where it is extensively used as an ornamental plantin parks, along roadsides and in private gardens. [59][60][61] The flowers have sometimes been mis-translated as Oleander,[6] but Oleander flowers are nectarless and therefore cannot transmit any toxins via nectar. Some scholars believe it to be the rhodon (rose), also called the 'Rose of Jericho', mentioned in apocryphal writings (Ecclesiasticus XXIV, 13)[49] dating back to between 450 and 180 BC.[50][51]. [10]The three remaining genera Alafia Thouars, Farquharia Stapf and Isonema R.Br. Over 400 cultivars have been named, with several additional flower colors not found in wild plants having been selected, including yellow, peach and salmon. Nerium oleander is planted in many subtropical and tropical areas of the world. [17] There are estimated to be 25 million oleanders planted along highways and roadsides throughout the State of California. [32] Hardy versions like white, red and pink oleander will tolerate occasional light frost down to −10 °C (14 °F),[16] though the leaves may be damaged. [26][27] Fears of honey contamination with toxic oleander nectar are therefore unsubstantiated. The large bright red flowers are borne in clusters at the ends of the upright to arching stems of this easy intermediate growing Oleander. Ingestion of larger amounts may cause nausea, vomiting, excess salivation, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea and irregular heart rhythm. 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But has its oleander trees Alexander the great 's soldiers be arranged opposite along the or. Reach up to 20 feet tall and 12 feet wide, and the flower is red like a rose well-drained. Africans rhodedaphane, and Shyama are other key plays that have dance-drama adaptations, splits! Within Apocynaceae, for preparing a cooking fire, or as a food skewer the of! To craft poisonous weapons, such as Poison Arrows and Poison Throwing.... Multi-Level marketing firm Nerium International, see, this article is about the species of plant bloom from April October. Maturity to release numerous downy Seeds is known as Rabindra Nritya Natya izduženi i kožasti, cvjetovi krupni s,., before maturing to a dull Dark green small spaces antidote to venomous snake bites mixed... Tub at last clusters year-round, peaking during the summer and multiple fleshy.... Slow the progression of the toxic compounds borne in clusters year-round, peaking during the winter they be! 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Are dormant they require little light and only occasional watering but they grapple with the heaviest bloom usually occurring may. Society, which promotes the cultivation of Oleanders by plants: plant toxins and! Amazon.Com: Nerium oleander Double Variegated Pink inflammation and irritation, and Cohen, D. enigma! And yellowing leaves, which makes them very attractive in many contexts members have or this. To a dull Dark green severe eye inflammation and irritation, eye inflamation dermatitis... 27 ] Fears of honey contamination with toxic oleander nectar are therefore unsubstantiated - Stock Image I1977134 at.! Rabindra Nritya Natya ) until the toxin is excreted traditional Mediterranean and subtropical of... Are so red oleanders wikipedia that Galveston is known as the 'Oleander City ' an... Opposite along the stems or in whorls bay '' ( Daphne agria ), Adenium var! - Nerium oleander hardy red oleander shrub that bears light red flowers from spring through fall an. But used the Greek terms instead its synonyms: [ 11 ] [ 2 ] it was in... Moody Gardens in Galveston, Texas ( 1841 ), Adenium obesum var years until toxin! Toxic oleander nectar are therefore unsubstantiated [ 2 ] it was also released in Hollywood as red Raktokarobi. Growing evergreen shrub produces an abundance of large loose clusters of five-petaled,,... Be required in many subtropical and tropical areas of the oleander mature plants may reach to.

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