scotch pine tree description

In Scandinavian countries, Scots pine was used for making tar in the preindustrial age. [2][3][4][15], The shoots are light brown, with a spirally arranged scale-like pattern. In central and southern Europe, it occurs with numerous additional species, including European black pine, mountain pine, Macedonian pine, and Swiss pine. The relatively humid and productive taiga of northern Europe and south-central Siberia is dominated by this species. The common name of scotch pine is still popular, … (1986). Mature Height/spread: 30 – 50 ft. high/20-35 ft. spread In youth, the Scotch pine has a conical shape, becoming a flat-topped, spreading tree with age, can be very attractive when mature, 30′ to 50′ tall, with an almost equal spread and horizontal branching habit. The Scotch pine is a long-lived tree with an expected life-span of 150 to 300 years; the oldest recorded specimen was in Lapland, … The undersides of Scotch pine needles are characterized by several prominent rows of white appearing stomatal openings. United States, ND. Forest … Facts About Pine Trees. Christmas Tree Species: Scotch Pine MSUChristmasTrees : About Uploaded on Nov 10, 2010. 'Nature's art': Alf Hawes; 90; holds a Scotch pine tree with growths on it that he decorated with red-breasted finches. The tree requires annual shearing, usually beginning the second or third year following planting and continuing on through the year of harvest. 2:48. From the British isles and Scandinavian peninsulas through central Europe south to the Mediterranean and east through eastern Siberia, Scotch pine can be found at varying elevations.Scotch pine was introduced to North America by European settlers and has long been cultivated, especially in the eastern United States and Canada. Ornamental Features. Cretacea Kalenicz. The wood is used for pulp and sawn timber products. General Description A medium to large tree, typically pyramidal when young, becoming more rounded and open with age. 10 years ago, in the Flathead Valley of Montana, there were a lot of Scotch Pines, but they were destined for the Christmas Tree market. Pollen records show that pine was present locally in southern England by 9,000 years ago having entered from northeast France and that it had spread as far north as the Lake District and North Pennines 500 years later. in length, these needles don’t even fall when they’re dry, providing excellent needle retention. Genetic variation of Pinus sylvestris from Spain in Relation to Other European Populations. Scots pine is an important tree in forestry. Leaf persistence varies from two to four years in warmer climates, and up to nine years in subarctic regions. "Scotch pine[10]" is another variant of the common name, used mostly in North America.[11]. scotch pine tree at a tree farm. Seed Cones: Red during pollination, turning gray-green to … Overcutting for timber demand, fire, overgrazing by sheep and deer, and even deliberate clearance to deter wolves have all been factors in the decline of this once great pine and birch forest. Golden Scotch Pine is an evergreen tree with a strong central leader and a more or less rounded form. Biological Flora of the British Isles: Pinus sylvestris L. 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T42418A2978732.en, European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, "Architectural Timber: History and Conservation", "Scots Pine: Best Management Practices in Ontario", "Eesti kõrgeim mänd osutus hiiglaseks ka ülejäänud maailmas", "Красная Книга России | Red Book of Russia. Scotch pine is the most widely distributed pine species in the world, growing from northern Scotland to the Russian Pacific shore. Hardy to -50°F Maximum Elevation: 8,000 Feet It was replaced by large areas of blanket bog in western Scotland and Ireland though the reasons for its decline and extinction in England are not clear, but it may have been influenced by human activities. The mighty Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris), also sometimes called the scots pine, is a rugged evergreen tree native to Europe. The crown is variable, with a variety of shapes common in wild populations from level branches to near-fastigiate (Pravdin 1964, Steven & Carlisle 1959); open ovoid-conic when young and usually eventually becoming dense, broadly domed or even flat-topped. The needles of Scotch pine are produced in bundles of two. As a Christmas tree, it is known for its dark green foliage and stiff branches which are well suited for decorating with both light and heavy ornaments. B., Westfall, R. D., & Forrest, G. I. No description available. [4][5][15][27] Whether it truly became extinct in England is unknown. [25] Pine expanded into Scotland between 8,000 and 8,500 years ago either from an independent refuge, from Scandinavia (via Doggerland) or from Ireland. A few seed orchards have been established in the United States from which seed is locally collected. The postglacial history of Scots pine (. The pollen cones are yellow, occasionally pink, 8–12 mm (5⁄16–15⁄32 in) long; pollen release is in mid to late spring. [3][35] Scots pines may be killed by the pine wood nematode, which causes pine wilt disease. Scots pine is an evergreen conifer native to northern Europe. The cone scales have a flat to pyramidal apophysis (the external part of the cone scale), with a small prickle on the umbo (central boss or protuberance). The color is a bright green. In the north of its range, it occurs from sea level to 1,000 m (3,300 ft), while in the south of its range it is a mountain tree, growing at 1,200–2,600 m (3,900–8,500 ft) altitude. Scots pines generally have a forked trunk that gives the medium-sized pine 2 flat masses of foliage. [28], The Scots pine formed much of the Caledonian Forest, which once covered much of the Scottish Highlands. Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris, is a species of tree in the pine family Pinaceae that is native to Eurasia, ranging from Western Europe to Eastern Siberia, south to the Caucasus Mountains and Anatolia, and north to well inside the Arctic Circle in Fennoscandia.
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1973 branch tips, two needle construction, 2 A widely planted evergreen in the past that will grow 40 to 50 feet tall and 30 feet wide, scotch pine has bluish-green to green foliage which usually turns yellowish green in winter. Consequently, there’s also a great amount of natural variability in terms of density, strength, and appearance because of the wide range of growth conditions for the tree. Kinloch, B. The Scotch pine is a long-needled coniferous evergreen that can easily grow 125 feet or more in height, with a trunk 3 feet or more in diameter. The color is a bright green. A beautiful evergreen which is hardy and adaptable to nearly all climates. North Dakota tree handbook. The tree is very hardy and is able to grow deep into the Arctic and into Scandinavia. Plans are currently in progress to restore at least some areas and work has started at key sites.[4][15]. Other Names: Riga Pine, Mongolian pine, Scotch pine: Size: Height: 35 m Trunk Diameter: 1m Tallest recorded specimen measures 46.6 m: Identification: Leaves (Needles): Glaucous blue-green on mature trees, dark green to dark yellow-green in winter, 2.5–5 cm long and 1-2 mm broad, occur in bundles with a gray basal sheath. Scotch Pine is an evergreen tree that develops ornamental bark and a bold, irregular character with age. When displayed in a water filled container it will remain fresh for the normal 3 to 4 week Christmas season. It has been speculated that it may have survived wild long enough for trees used in cultivation in England to derive from native (rather than imported) sources. A common Christmas tree in the U.S., the scotch pine has an excellent survival rate, is easy to replant, has great keepability and will remain fresh throughout the holiday season. Can be used as either a windbreak or a single specimen. Pinus sylvestris L. Description. lapponica, but the differences are clinal and it is not genetically distinct. Twigs are green-brown and hairless. Stem straight (contorted only if lead shoot damaged when young, often by pine shoot moth Evetria turionana). There has been some research by university personnel to identify and produce genetically improved planting stock, although these efforts have not been totally successful. It can be successfully grown in even poor soils. The species is not demanding with respect to fertility or moisture and supplemental fertilization or irrigation is not considered necessary. On mature trees the leaves ('needles') are a glaucous blue-green, often darker green to dark yellow-green in winter, 2.5–5 cm (1–2 in) long and 1–2 mm (1⁄32–3⁄32 in) broad, produced in fascicles of two with a persistent grey 5–10 mm (1⁄4–3⁄8 in) basal sheath. Scotch Pine Tree Identification. Scots pines are dense trees with dark-green needles. How to identify a Scots Pine, one of the more iconic pine species. Scotch pine is host to a number of insect and disease problems, and continued protection from foliage and stem damaging agents is necessary. As the climate warmed it became extinct from most of the British Isles around 5,500 years ago except in Scotland and at Kielder, England. It is adaptable to a wide variety of sites and accordingly, has been widely planted for both Christmas tree and ornamental purposes. Seed is obtained by international collectors and marketed through reputable seed dealers. Despite this wide distribution, the Scots pine forests in Scotland are unique and distinct from those elsewhere because of the absence of any other native conifers. Historical and archaeological records indicate that it also occurred in Wales and England until about 300–400 years ago, becoming extinct there due to over-exploitation and grazing; it has been re-introduced in these countries. Propagation:Scotch pine is reproduced from seed. Scots pine, also called Scotch pine, is an introduced species from Europe and Asia. It is an extremely hardy species which is adaptable to a wide variety of soils and sites. [13] The habit of the mature tree is distinctive due to its long, bare and straight trunk topped by a rounded or flat-topped mass of foliage. Another name, although less common, is European redwood. Additionally, the Scots pine is the plant badge of Clan Gregor and has been proposed as the national tree of Scotland. Despite its invasiveness in parts of eastern North America, Scots pine does not often grow well there, partly due to climate and soil differences between its native habitat and that of North America, and partly due to damage by pests and diseases; the tree often grows in a twisted, haphazard manner if not tended to (as they are in the Christmas tree trade). Color is likewise variable with bright green characteristic of a few varieties to dark green to bluish tones more prominent in others. Height: 40-50 feet (12-15 meters) Spread: 25-30 feet (7.6-9 meters) It is a popular Christmas tree because of its form and ability to hold onto its needles for a long time. Images by Boulder Tree Care. Bark is relished by porcupines, which can cause extensive damage. As a Christmas tree Scotch pine is probably the most commonly used species in the United States. Its average texture blends into the landscape, but can be balanced by one or two finer or coarser trees or shrubs for an effective composition. Uses:In Europe and throughout several countries in Asia, Scotch pine is an important species of high economic value. It is also a preferred species for many choose and cut growers in much of the eastern and central United States. Identifying Pinus sylvestris by leaves, bark, twigs, branches and cones. As a Christmas tree Scotch pine is known for its excellent needle retention and good keepability. ... How to Identify Pine Trees - Duration: 2:48. manuela lopez ramirez 56,321 views. Large patches of forest containing mostly this species are still scattered over the countryside. In taiga: Trees. [30], Scots pine has also been widely planted in New Zealand and much of the colder regions of North America; it was one of the first trees introduced to North America, in about 1600. Mature trees have an open spreading habit with distinguishing orange, scaly bark. [2][4][15][10], Over 100 Pinus sylvestris varieties have been described in the botanical literature, but only three or four are now accepted. The Scotch Pine is an incredibly prevalent species and often dominates forests in Western Europe, Siberia, and the United States. Product Description Distinctive, heavily plated, yellowish-orange bark and layered spreading branches create an interesting conical to rounded evergreen with short, twisted, bluish-green needles and egg shaped cones. It grows across a large portion of North America, where it’s popular in site reclamation. [36], Several cultivars are grown for ornamental purposes in parks and large gardens, of which 'Aurea',[37] 'Beuvronensis',[38] 'Frensham',[39] and 'Gold Coin'[40] have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[41]. French Blue Scotch Pine (hindu pan) is an evergreen tree with a strong central leader and a more or less rounded form. Although plantations have been established in the United States for the purpose of producing forest products, the species does not perform as well as in its native habitat. Large amounts of cones are likewise produced which often persist on the tree from one year to the next. [28] Shakespeare (in Richard II) was familiar with the species in the 1590s, as was Evelyn in the early 1660s (Sylva), both around the time when Scots pine was thought to become extinct in England, but when landowners were also beginning ornamental and forestry planting. Logs from trees of large diameters are processed into veneer and used in manufacturing plywood. It has a dry density around 470 kg/m3 (varying with growth conditions), an open porosity of 60%, a fibre saturation point of 0.25 kg/kg, and a saturation moisture content of 1.60 kg/kg. Like most pines two growing seasons are required to produce mature cones. Provided by USDA NRCS Bismarck PMC (NDPMC). The timber from it is also called red deal or yellow deal, the name "deal" being adopted from the dimensional format term for a plank. The most common Christmas tree in the U.S., the scotch pine has an excellent survival rate, is easy to replant, has great keepability and will remain fresh throughout the holiday season. Provided by ND State Soil Conservation Committee. Scots pine is an introduced species which has been widely planted for the purpose of producing Christmas trees. For the United Baltic Corporation steamship, see, Species of conifer in the family Pinaceae, Rick Steves Scotland (second edition) By Rick Steves. [31] It is listed as an invasive species in some areas there, including Ontario,[32] Michigan[33] and Wisconsin. Steven, H. M., & Carlisle, A. Because of its ease of planting, generally high planting survival and favorable response to plantation culture it has been widely planted throughout much of the eastern United States and Canada. Common Characteristics:Approximately 1 in. Range:Scotch pine is native to Europe and Asia. They are variable in length, ranging from slightly over 1-inch for some varieties to nearly 3-inches for others. The Scotch Pine plantations that are left (if there are any, now) are a tight, tangled mess. The market for Scotch Pine bombed, and they were ripped out and burned. The bark is a scaly orange-brown, which develops plates and fissures with age. The nematode most often attacks trees that are at least ten years old and often kills trees it infects within a few weeks. Its average texture blends into the landscape, but can be balanced by one or two finer or coarser trees or shrubs for an effective composition. Intra- and interspecific genetic differentiation in closely related pines from, Sinclair, W. T., Morman, J. D., & Ennos, R. A. are the most common coniferous tree worldwide, numbering around 100 species. For several years it was the favorite species of large eastern wholesale growers because of its excellent harvesting and shipping qualities. On excellent sites within its native range mature trees may reach a trunk diameter of 30 inches or more and individual trees may exceed 125 feet in height. Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris, is a species of tree in the pine family Pinaceae that is native to Eurasia, ranging from Western Europe to Eastern Siberia, south to the Caucasus Mountains and Anatolia, and north to well inside the Arctic Circle in Fennoscandia. (1999). Forest stands containing Scotch pine are managed to produce pulpwood, poles, and sawlogs from which dimension and finish lumber is produced. in length, these needles don’t even fall when they’re dry, providing excellent needle retention. Bark on lower stem thick, scaly-plated, grey-brown; on upper stem and branches, thin, flaki… Mature trees grow to 35m and can live for up to 700 years. The Irish and western Scottish populations went through a massive decline around 4,000 years ago which ultimately led to the extinction of the Irish population between 2,000 and 1,000 years ago. In recent years the tree has been bothered with fatal attacks of pine wilt nematode, therefore, its use in landscapes is not recommended in many areas. Pine trees (Pinus spp.) Seedling with flatter, unpaired juvenile leaves, Looking up into the branch structure of a P. sylvestris tree, "Baltic Pine" redirects here. (zones 3-7) [6], Other names sometimes used include Riga pine,[8] Baltic pine,[9] Norway pine, and Mongolian pine for var. [2][3][5][17][18][19][20][21][22][23], Scots pine is the only pine native to northern Europe, forming either pure forests or mixed with Norway spruce, common juniper, silver birch, European rowan, Eurasian aspen and other hardwood species. In the eastern part of its range, it occurs with Siberian pine, among others.[3][4]. Scots (Scotch) Pine Tree (Pinus sylvestris) Scots (Scotch) pines have bluish-green short needles Scots (Scotch) pine trees are stunning evergreen conifers that have thick scaly brown bark, bluish-green needles, and small red to tan cones. In the north of its range, it occurs from sea level to 1,000 m (3,300 ft), while in the south of its range it is a mountain tree, growing at 1,200–2,600 m (3,900–8,500 ft) altitude. Orange- brown peeling bark. [26], In Britain it now occurs naturally only in Scotland. The Scotch Pine is a lovely pine widely used throughout North America as a landscape pine and as a commercially grown Christmas tree. Summary. On vigorous young trees the leaves can be twice as long, and occasionally occur in fascicles of three or four on the tips of strong shoots. Langlet, O. [2][3][4][5], The species is mainly found on poorer, sandy soils, rocky outcrops, peat bogs or close to the forest limit. It was used to fortify the tunnelling and preferred for its cracking sound when in need of replacing. (1959). SCOTCH PINE: Approximately 1 in. A seedling stand can be created by planting, sowing, or natural regeneration. Goncharenko, G. G., Silin, A. E., & Padutov, V. E. (1995). Molecular systematics and genetic differentiation of. The seeds are blackish, 3–5 mm (1⁄8–3⁄16 in) in length with a pale brown 12–20 mm (15⁄32–25⁄32 in) wing and are released when the cones open in spring 22–24 months after pollination. Description: An ornamental variation of scotch pine with interesting clumped needle growth; this tree must be kept pruned to maintain the pom pom puff effect but is well worth it for the exotic element it will add to your garden. [16] They differ only minimally in morphology, but with more pronounced differences in genetic analysis and resin composition. [15][17] The pine has also been used as a source of rosin and turpentine. The wood is pale brown to red-brown, and used for general construction work. USDA NRCS ND State Soil Conservation Committee; NDSU Extension and Western Area Power Administration, Bismarck. Seedlings up to one year old bear juvenile leaves; these are single (not in pairs), 2–3 cm (3⁄4–1 1⁄4 in) long, flattened, with a serrated margin. It has an attractive and distinctive look, but it’s not always a good choice for the home landscape in some areas. Ex Kom", Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Scots_pine&oldid=992383768, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. It is an extremely hardy species which is adaptable to a wide variety of soils and sites. Only comparatively small areas (17,000 ha (42,000 acres), only just over 1% of the estimated original 1,500,000 ha (3,700,000 acres)[citation needed]) of this ancient forest remain, the main surviving remnants being at Abernethy Forest, Glen Affric, Rothiemurchus Forest, and the Black Wood of Rannoch. Comments: Scots Pine has an enormous distribution, spanning from Portugal in the west out to eastern Siberia. It resists drying and if permitted to become dry does not drop its needles. Hard pines, such as Scotch, Corsican, and loblolly pines, have relatively hard timber, needles in bundles of two or three (rarely, five to eight), cone scales with prickles, and large amounts of resin. This is a high maintenance tree that will require regular care and upkeep. [14], The bark is thick, scaly dark grey-brown on the lower trunk, and thin, flaky and orange on the upper trunk and branches. Scots pine is the tree species that has long defined the Michigan Christmas tree and is still a favorite for traditionalists. It has excellent needle retention characteristics and holds up well throughout harvest, shipping and display. Commercial plantation rotations vary between 50 and 120 years, with longer rotations in northeastern areas where growth is slower.

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